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Oud oil can be distilled from "real" agar wood (45 years of continuous Ambrosia beetle fermenting) using steam; the total yield of oil for 70 kg of wood will not exceed 20 ml (Harris, 1995).
In addition, agarwood plantations have been established in a number of countries, and reintroduced into countries such as Malaysia and Sri Lanka as commercial plantation crops.
The success of these plantation depends on the stimulation of agarwood production in the trees. Smallholder Tree Growing for Rural Development and Environmental Services: Lessons from Asia.
Agarwood was exported in three varieties: Calambac (kỳ nam in Vietnamese), trầm hương (very similar but slightly harder and slightly more abundant), and agarwood proper.
A pound of Calambac bought in Hội An for 15 taels could be sold in Nagasaki for 600 taels.
Prior to infection, the heartwood is odourless, relatively light and pale coloured; however, as the infection progresses, the tree produces a dark aromatic resin, called aloes or agar (as well as gaharu, jinko, oud, or oodh; not to be confused with bukhoor), in response to the attack, which results in a very dense, dark, resin embedded heartwood.