The Bronze Age chronology of the Caucasus, in turn, is linked to that of Anatolia, in modern Turkey.As a result, the steppe regions of the former Soviet Union have a Bronze Age chronology that is entirely different from that just to the west in Poland or southeastern Europe, where the western European chronological system defined by Paul Reinecke was used.
These enormous towns were occupied from about 3800 to 3500 BC, during the Tripolye C1 period, and then were abandoned.
Most of the eastern Tripolye population dispersed into smaller, more mobile residential units.
In addition, some influential Soviet and post-Soviet archaeologists were slow to accept the validity of radiocarbon dating, so competing radiocarbon-based and typology-based chronologies have confused outsiders.
Finally, the Bronze Age of the steppe covers such an enormous area that it is impossible to define one chronology that applies to the entire region.
The steppe Bronze Age was defined by Soviet archaeologists, who did not look to western Europe for guidance.